И кто только распустил этот слух. Ей казалось, что она слышит его голос, зовущий ее, заставляющий спасаться бегством, но куда ей бежать. Говорила Мидж - излагая серию необычайных событий, которые заставили их нарушить неприкосновенность кабинета.
Черт возьми, - подумала Сьюзан. Он получил кольцо.
The Romani are widely known among English-speaking people by the exonym Gypsies or Gipsies , which some people consider pejorative due to its connotations of illegality and irregularity. Since the 19th century, some Romani have also migrated to the Americas.
There are an estimated one million Roma in the United States ;  and , in Brazil , most of whose ancestors emigrated in the nineteenth century from eastern Europe. Brazil also includes some Romani descended from people deported by the government of Portugal during the Inquisition in the colonial era.
The Romani language is divided into several dialects , which add up to an estimated number of speakers larger than two million. Many Romani are native speakers of the language current in their country of residence, or of mixed languages combining the two; those varieties are sometimes called Para-Romani.
In the Romani language , Rom is a masculine noun, meaning 'man of the Roma ethnic group' or 'man, husband', with the plural Roma. The feminine of Rom in the Romani language is Romni. However, in most cases, in other languages Rom is now used for people of all genders. Romani is the feminine adjective, while Romano is the masculine adjective. Some Romanies use Rom or Roma as an ethnic name, while others such as the Sinti , or the Romanichal do not use this term as a self-ascription for the entire ethnic group.
Sometimes, rom and romani are spelled with a double r , i. In the English language according to the Oxford English Dictionary , Rom is a noun with the plural Roma or Roms and an adjective, while Romani Romany is also a noun with the plural Romani , the Romani , Romanies or Romanis and an adjective.
Both Rom and Romani have been in use in English since the 19th century as an alternative for Gypsy. Romani was initially spelled Rommany , then Romany , while today the Romani spelling is the most popular spelling. Occasionally, the double r spelling e. The term Roma is increasingly encountered during recent decades,   as a generic term for the Romani people.
Because all Romanies use the word Romani as an adjective, the term became a noun for the entire ethnic group. Romani language , Romani culture. The standard assumption is that the demonyms of the Romani people, Lom and Dom share the same origin. The Spanish term Gitano and French Gitan have similar etymologies. This designation owes its existence to the belief, common in the Middle Ages, that the Romani, or some related group such as the Middle Eastern Dom people , were itinerant Egyptians.
The word Gypsy in English has become so pervasive that many Romani organizations use it in their own organizational names.
This exonym is sometimes written with capital letter, to show that it designates an ethnic group. Another common designation of the Romani people is Cingane alt.
Tsinganoi, Zigar, Zigeuner , which likely derives from Athinganoi , the name of a Christian sect with whom the Romani or some related group became associated in the Middle Ages.
For a variety of reasons, many Romanis choose not to register their ethnic identity in official censuses. There are an estimated 3. Several million more Romanies may live out of Europe, in particular in the Middle East and in the Americas. Like the Roma in general, many different ethnonyms are given to subgroups of Roma. Sometimes a subgroup uses more than one endonym , is commonly known by an exonym or erroneously by the endonym of another subgroup.
The only name approaching an all-encompassing self-description is Rom. Subgroups have been described as, in part, a result of the Hindu caste system , which the founding population of Rom almost certainly experienced in their South Asian urheimat. Many groups use names apparently derived from the Romani word kalo or calo , meaning "black" or "absorbing all light". From the Balkans, they migrated throughout Europe and, in the nineteenth and later centuries, to the Americas.
The Romani population in the United States is estimated at more than one million. The Romani people are mainly called by non-Romani ethnic Brazilians as ciganos. There is no official or reliable count of the Romani populations worldwide. As of the early s, an estimated 3. The total number of Romani living outside Europe are primarily in the Middle East and North Africa and in the Americas, and are estimated in total at more than two million.
Some countries do not collect data by ethnicity. The Romani people identify as distinct ethnicities based in part on territorial, cultural and dialectal differences, and self-designation. Findings suggest an Indian origin for Roma.
But the luris ate the oxen and the wheat and came back a year later with their cheeks hollowed with hunger. The king, angered with their having wasted what he had given them, ordered them to pack up their bags and go wandering around the world. The linguistic evidence has indisputably shown that the roots of the Romani language lie in India: More exactly, Romani shares the basic lexicon with Hindi and Punjabi. It shares many phonetic features with Marwari , while its grammar is closest to Bengali.
Romani and Domari share some similarities: The Dom and the Rom therefore likely descend from two different migration waves out of India, separated by several centuries.
In phonology , Romani language shares a number of isoglosses with the Central branch of Indo-Aryan languages especially in the realization of some sounds of the Old Indo-Aryan.
However, it also preserves a number of dental clusters. In regards to verb morphology, Romani follows the exact same pattern of northwestern languages such as Kashmiri and Shina through the adoption of oblique enclitic pronouns as person markers, lending credence to the theory of their Central Indian origin and a subsequent migration to northwestern India.
Though the retention of dental clusters suggests a break from central languages during the transition from Old to Middle Indo-Aryan, the overall morphology suggests that the language participated in some of the significant developments leading toward the emergence of New Indo-Aryan languages.
Genetic findings in suggest the Romani originated in northwestern India and migrated as a group. The team found that, despite some isolation, the Roma were "genetically similar to other Europeans.
Genetic evidence supports the medieval migration from India. The Romani have been described as "a conglomerate of genetically isolated founder populations,"  while a number of common Mendelian disorders among Romanies from all over Europe indicates "a common origin and founder effect.
A study from by Gresham et al. A study of people representing three different ethnic groups in the Republic of Macedonia found mtDNA haplogroups M5a1 and H7a1a were dominant in Romanies Haplogroup I-P as H is not found at frequencies of over 3 percent among host populations, while haplogroups E and I are absent in South Asia.
They may have emerged from the modern Indian state of Rajasthan ,  migrating to the northwest the Punjab region , Sindh and Baluchistan of the Indian subcontinent around BC.
Their subsequent westward migration, possibly in waves, is now believed to have occurred beginning in about AD As these soldiers were defeated, they were moved west with their families into the Byzantine Empire. This is lent further credence by its sharing the exact same pattern of northwestern languages such as Kashmiri and Shina through the adoption of oblique enclitic pronouns as person markers. The overall morphology suggests that Romani participated in some of the significant developments leading toward the emergence of New Indo-Aryan languages , thus indicating that the proto-Romani did not leave the Indian subcontinent until late in the second half of the first millennium.
Though according to a genomic study, the Romani reached the Balkans as early as the 12th century,  the first historical records of the Romani reaching south-eastern Europe are from the 14th century: In Ludolphus of Sudheim mentioned a similar people with a unique language whom he called Mandapolos , a word some think derives from the Greek word mantes meaning prophet or fortune teller.
The two currents met in France. Their early history shows a mixed reception. Although marks the first recorded transaction for a Romani slave in Wallachia , they were issued safe conduct by Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund in A English statute gave Romanies special privileges that other wanderers lacked. France passed a similar law in Catherine the Great of Russia declared the Romanies "crown slaves" a status superior to serfs , but also kept them out of certain parts of the capital.
Since a royal edict by Charles II in , Spanish gypsies had been restricted to certain towns. Although some Romani could be kept as slaves in Wallachia and Moldavia until abolition in , the majority traveled as free nomads with their wagons, as alluded to in the spoked wheel symbol in the Romanies flag.
In England, Romani were sometimes expelled from small communities or hanged; in France, they were branded and their heads were shaved; in Moravia and Bohemia , the women were marked by their ears being severed. As a result, large groups of the Romani moved to the East, toward Poland , which was more tolerant, and Russia , where the Romani were treated more fairly as long as they paid the annual taxes.
Romani began emigrating to North America in colonial times, with small groups recorded in Virginia and French Louisiana. The largest number immigrated in the early s, mainly from the Vlax group of Kalderash. Many Romani also settled in South America. They were often killed on sight, especially by the Einsatzgruppen paramilitary death squads on the Eastern Front. The treatment of Romani in Nazi partner states differed markedly.
In the Independent State of Croatia , the separatist Ustasa organization killed around 25, Roma, almost the entire Roma population. The concentration camp system of Jasenovac , run by the Ustasa militia and the Croat political police, were responsible for the deaths of between 15, and 20, Roma.
In Czechoslovakia , they were labeled a "socially degraded stratum," and Romani women were sterilized as part of a state policy to reduce their population. This policy was implemented with large financial incentives, threats of denying future welfare payments, with misinformation, or after administering drugs. An official inquiry from the Czech Republic, resulting in a report December , concluded that the Communist authorities had practiced an assimilation policy towards Romanis, which "included efforts by social services to control the birth rate in the Romani community.
The problem of sexual sterilisation carried out in the Czech Republic, either with improper motivation or illegally, exists," said the Czech Public Defender of Rights, recommending state compensation for women affected between and Germany, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland "all have histories of coercive sterilization of minorities and other groups.
The traditional Romanies place a high value on the extended family. Virginity is essential in unmarried women. Both men and women often marry young; there has been controversy in several countries over the Romani practice of child marriage. Romani law establishes that the man's family must pay a bride price to the bride's parents, but only traditional families still follow this rule.
Once married, the woman joins the husband's family, where her main job is to tend to her husband's and her children's needs, as well as to take care of her in-laws. The power structure in the traditional Romani household has at its top the oldest man or grandfather, and men in general have more authority than women. Women gain respect and authority as they get older. Young wives begin gaining authority once they have children.
Romani social behavior is strictly regulated by Hindu purity laws  "marime" or "marhime" , still respected by most Roma and by most older generations of Sinti.