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The collapse meant that successive governments enacted lean budgets, cutting spending, which was a setback to the further economic development of the city and state. The global media conglomerate News Corporation was founded in, and until incorporated in, Adelaide and it is still considered its 'spiritual' home by Rupert Murdoch. Australia's largest oil company, Santos , prominent South Australian brewery, Coopers , and national retailer Harris Scarfe also call Adelaide their home.
As of November , Greater Adelaide had an unemployment rate of 7. The median Adelaide house price is half that of Sydney and two-thirds that of Melbourne.
The three-month trend unemployment rate to March was 6. Over the decade March — March , Metropolitan Adelaide median house prices approximately tripled. All numbers approximate and rounded. Education forms an increasingly important part of the city's economy, with the South Australian Government and educational institutions attempting to position Adelaide as "Australia's education hub" and marketing it as a "Learning City. At the level of primary and secondary education, there are two systems of school education.
There is a public system operated by the South Australian Government and a private system of independent and Catholic schools. There are three public universities local to Adelaide, as well as one private university and three constituent colleges of foreign universities. The University of Adelaide was ranked in the top universities worldwide. Flinders ranked in the top and Uni SA in the top Torrens University Australia is part of an international network of over 70 higher education institutions in more than 30 countries worldwide.
The University of Adelaide , with 25, students,  is Australia's third-oldest university and a member of the leading " Group of Eight ". It has five campuses throughout the state, including two in the city-centre, and a campus in Singapore. The University of South Australia , with 37, students,  has two North Terrace campuses, three other campuses in the metropolitan area and campuses at Whyalla and Mount Gambier.
The Flinders University of South Australia , with 21, students,  is in the southern suburb of Bedford Park , alongside the Flinders Medical Centre , and maintains a small city campus in Victoria Square.
In addition to the universities, Adelaide is home to a number of research institutes, including the Royal Institution of Australia , established in as a counterpart to the two-hundred-year-old Royal Institution of Great Britain. Flinders University buildings from the campus hills. While established as a British province, and very much English in terms of its culture, Adelaide attracted immigrants from other parts of Europe early on, including German and other European non-conformists escaping religious persecution.
The first German Lutherans arrived in  bringing with them the vine cuttings that they used to found the acclaimed wineries of the Barossa Valley. Adelaide's arts scene flourished in the s and s with the support of successive premiers from both major political parties. Adelaide is home to the Adelaide Christmas Pageant , the world's largest Christmas parade. The Art Gallery of South Australia , with around 35, works, holds Australia's second largest state-based collection.
Adelaide Festival Centre , on the banks of the Torrens, is the focal point for much of the cultural activity in the city and home to the State Theatre Company of South Australia , with other venues including the Adelaide Entertainment Centre and the city's many smaller theatres, pubs and cabaret bars. The music of Adelaide has produced musical groups and individuals who have achieved national and international fame. Noted rocker Jimmy Barnes spent most of his youth in the northern suburb of Elizabeth.
Paul Kelly grew up in Adelaide and was head prefect at Rostrevor College. Folds recorded a song about Adelaide before he moved away. Adelaide plays host to two of Australia's leading contemporary dance companies. Restless Dance Theatre is also based in Adelaide and is nationally recognised for working with disabled and non-disabled dancers to use movement as a means of expression. Newspapers in Adelaide are dominated by News Corporation publications—Adelaide being the birthplace of News Corporation itself.
The same group publishes a Sunday paper, the Sunday Mail. There are eleven suburban community newspapers published weekly, known collectively as the Messenger Newspapers , also published by a subsidiary of News Corporation.
The Independent Weekly was a small independent newspaper providing an alternative view, but ceased publishing its print edition in November and now exists as a digital daily newsletter only.
The Adelaide Review is a free paper published fortnightly, and other independent magazine-style papers are published, but are not as widely available. Adelaide is served by twenty-eight digital free-to-air television channels:. All of the five Australian national television networks broadcast both high definition digital and standard-definition television digital services in Adelaide. They share three transmission towers on the ridge near the summit of Mount Lofty. Two other transmission sites are located at Grenfell Street and Elizabeth Downs.
Adelaide also has a community television station, Channel The Foxtel pay TV service is available as cable television in a few areas, and as satellite television to the entire metropolitan area.
It is resold by a number of other brands, mostly telephone companies. As part of a nationwide phase-out of analogue television in Australia, Adelaide's analogue television service was shut down on 2 April There are twenty radio stations that serve the metropolitan area, as well as four community stations that serve only parts of the metropolitan area.
Of the twenty full coverage stations, there are six commercial stations, six community stations, six national stations and two narrowcast stations. A complete list can be found at List of radio stations in Australia Adelaide. The main sports played professionally in Adelaide are Australian rules football , association football soccer , cricket , netball , and basketball.
Adelaide is the home of two Australian Football League teams: Since , Adelaide Oval has also hosted an international cricket test every summer, along with a number of One Day International cricket matches. Memorial Drive Park , adjacent to the Adelaide Oval, used to host Davis Cup and other major tennis events, including the Australian Open and until the Adelaide International now known as the Brisbane International.
Adelaide's professional association football team, Adelaide United , play in the A-League. Founded in , their home ground is Hindmarsh Stadium , which has a capacity of 17, and is one of the few purpose-built soccer stadia in Australia. For two years, and , Adelaide was represented in Australia's top level rugby league , after the New South Wales Rugby League had played a single game per season at the Adelaide Oval for five years starting in Initially playing at the Adelaide Oval, the club moved to the more suitable Hindmarsh Stadium late in the season.
As part of a peace deal with the Australian Rugby League to end the Super League war , the club's owners News Limited who were also owners of the SL suddenly closed the club only weeks before the start of the season.
Both teams play their home games at the Titanium Security Arena. Adelaide has a professional netball team, the Adelaide Thunderbirds , who play in the national netball competition, the Suncorp Super Netball championship, with home games played at Priceline Stadium. The Thunderbirds occasionally play games or finals at the Titanium Security Arena, while international netball matches are usually played at the 10, seat Adelaide Entertainment Centre.
The Titanium Security Arena has a capacity of 8, in is the largest purpose built basketball stadium in Australia. Since Adelaide and its surrounding areas has hosted the Tour Down Under bicycle race , organised and directed by Adelaide-based Mike Turtur.
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They have been playing since , and their home stadium until was Norwood Oval. They were national champions in and play their games at the IceArenA.
The Classic Adelaide, a rally of classic sporting vehicles, is also held in the city and its surrounds. Adelaide formerly had three horse racing venues.
It also has Globe Derby Park for Harness racing which opened in and by had become Adelaide's premier harness racing venue taking over from the Wayville Showgrounds , as well as Greyhound Park for greyhound racing which opened in The World Solar Challenge race attracts teams from around the world, most of which are fielded by universities or corporations, although some are fielded by high schools.
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The race has a year history spanning nine races, with the inaugural event taking place in Adelaide hosted the World Bowls Championships  at Lockleys Bowling Club, becoming the third city in the world to have held the championships twice, having previously hosted the event in Dirt track speedway is also popular in Adelaide with three operating speedways. Gillman Speedway located in the semi-industrial suburb of Gillman , has been in operation since and caters to Motorcycle speedway and Sidecars , while the Sidewinders Speedway located in Wingfield is also a motorcycle speedway dedicated to Under riders and has been in operation since These hospitals are all teaching hospitals.
Adelaide also hosts numerous private hospitals in the city centre and suburbs. In June the State Government announced a series of overhauls to the health sector that would see a new hospital constructed on railyards at the west end of the city, to replace the Royal Adelaide Hospital at the east end of the city.
Construction started in June and is expected to be completed in In addition, major upgrades were announced to see the Flinders Medical Centre become the primary centre for health care for the southern suburbs, and the Lyell McEwin Hospital in Elizabeth become the centre for the northern suburbs.
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The trio of the Queen Elizabeth Hospital, the Modbury Hospital and the Noarlunga Hospital were to become specialist elective surgery centres. The Repatriation General Hospital was also to expand its range of speciality areas beyond veterans' health to incorporate stroke, orthopaedic rehabilitation and aged care. The largest not-for-profit provider of community health care within Adelaide is the Royal District Nursing Service South Australia which provides out of hospital care and hospital avoidance care, which in turn eases pressure on the South Australia public hospital system.
Being centrally located on the Australian mainland, Adelaide forms a strategic transport hub for east-west and north-south routes.
The city itself has a metropolitan-wide public transport system, which is managed by and known as the Adelaide Metro. The Adelaide Metro consists of a contracted bus system including the O-Bahn Busway , metropolitan railways with diesel and electric lines , and the Adelaide- Glenelg Tram , which was extended as a metropolitan tram in through the city centre to the inner north-west suburb of Hindmarsh. There are further plans to extend the tram to Port Adelaide and Semaphore.
A CBD tram loop too, is being considered and the latest Adelaide Airport master plan has also revealed a tram extension to the airport in the near future. Road transport in Adelaide has historically been comparatively easier than many of the other Australian cities, with a well-defined city layout and wide multiple-lane roads from the beginning of its development. Historically, Adelaide was known as a "twenty-minute city", with commuters having been able to travel from metropolitan outskirts to the city proper in roughly twenty minutes.
However, these roads are now often considered inadequate to cope with Adelaide's growing road traffic, and often experience traffic congestion. The Adelaide metropolitan area has one freeway and three expressways.
In order of construction, they are:. Adelaide Airport, in Adelaide's western suburbs, serves in excess of 8 million passengers annually. Parafield Airport served as Adelaide's main aerodrome until the opening of the Adelaide Airport in February The electricity retail market was opened to competition in and although competition was expected to result in lower retail costs, prices increased by SA Power Networks now distributes electricity from transmission companies to end users.
Privatisation led to competition from a variety of companies who now separately provide for the generation, transmission, distribution and retail sales of gas and electricity. Some of the major companies are: TRUenergy , which generates electricity; ElectraNet , which transmits electricity from the generators to the distribution network, Lumo Energy and AGL Energy , which retails gas and electricity.
Adelaide's water supply is gained from its reservoirs: The remaining demand is met by the pumping of water from the River Murray. A sea water desalination plant capable of supplying half of Adelaide's water requirements GL per annum was commissioned in The provision of water services is by the government-owned SA Water.
National and ACT Canberra. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the greater metropolitan area known as Adelaide. For the city centre, see Adelaide city centre. For the local government area, see City of Adelaide. For other uses, see Adelaide disambiguation. From top to bottom: A view of the Adelaide plains looking South towards the Adelaide Hills. The Torrens River at night with the Torrens river footbridge illuminated.
Adelaide Oval during a cricket match with the Adelaide Oval scoreboard to the left and St Peter's Cathedral to the right. Australian residential architectural styles. Government of South Australia. Local government areas of South Australia.
Education in South Australia. List of South Australian commercial icons. Sport in South Australia. Adelaide portal South Australia portal.
Ten years of growth: Australia's population hot spots". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 29 July Retrieved 28 February The Macquarie Library Pty Ltd. A History of European Housing in Australia. Retrieved 26 January Diversity Archived 10 August at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 23 December Retrieved 16 April Retrieved 7 March It could be argued that Adelaideans are easily influenced by all things wheels [ Archived from the original on 24 July Retrieved 23 January Retrieved 2 July The Sydney Morning Herald.
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Retrieved 4 March Archived from the original on 13 July Cross, London, and J. The result of several years' residence and practical experience in those matters in the Colony. His subterfuge was so successful that he confused later writers including Karl Marx , who wrote "It is the great merit of E. Wakefield to have discovered not anything new about the Colonies, but to have discovered in the Colonies the truth of as to the condition of capitalist production in the mother-country.
History of Adelaide Gaol. Archived from the original on 24 October Retrieved 7 September Archived from the original on 25 October Retrieved 14 August Pioneer Association of South Australia. Retrieved 10 May Retrieved 30 May Crowley, Modern Australia in Documents: Playford — Benevolent Despot. After many years of mixed fortunes, Mitsubishi ceased manufacturing at Tonsley Park on 27 March Archived from the original on 11 October Retrieved 13 June Retrieved 6 December South Australian Museum, 10 November Retrieved 5 April Emergency Management Australia, 13 September Port Adelaide and its Institute, — Retrieved 20 November Under the burning sun: The geology of South Australia.
South Australia Geological Survey, Bulletin The weather and climate of Australia and New Zealand First ed. Climate statistics for Australian locations. Retrieved June 18, Archived from the original on 18 June
In June , Adelaide had an estimated resident population of 1,, Named in honour of Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen , queen consort to King William IV , the city was founded in as the planned capital for a freely-settled British province in Australia. Colonel William Light , one of Adelaide's founding fathers, designed the city and chose its location close to the River Torrens , in the area originally inhabited by the Kaurna people.
Light's design set out Adelaide in a grid layout , interspaced by wide boulevards and large public squares, and entirely surrounded by parklands.
Early Adelaide was shaped by prosperity and wealth—until the Second World War , it was Australia's third-largest city and one of the few Australian cities to not have convict history. As South Australia's seat of government and commercial centre, Adelaide is the site of many governmental and financial institutions. Most of these are concentrated in the city centre along the cultural boulevard of North Terrace , King William Street and in various districts of the metropolitan area.
Today, Adelaide is noted for its many festivals and sporting events, its food and wine, its long beachfronts, and its large defence and manufacturing sectors. It ranks highly in terms of liveability, being listed in the Top 10 of The Economist Intelligence Unit ' s World's Most Liveable Cities index in ,  ,   and Prior to its proclamation as a British settlement in , the area around Adelaide was inhabited by the indigenous Kaurna Aboriginal nation pronounced "Garner".
Kaurna culture and language was almost completely destroyed within a few decades of the European settlement of South Australia in The event is commemorated in South Australia as Proclamation Day. Adelaide was established as a planned colony of free immigrants, promising civil liberties and freedom from religious persecution, based upon the ideas of Edward Gibbon Wakefield.
Wakefield had read accounts of Australian settlement while in prison in London for attempting to abduct an heiress,  and realised that the eastern colonies suffered from a lack of available labour, due to the practice of giving land grants to all arrivals. As it was believed that in a colony of free settlers there would be little crime, no provision was made for a gaol in Colonel Light's plan. However, by mid the South Australian Register was warning of escaped convicts from New South Wales and tenders for a temporary gaol were sought.
Adelaide's early history was wrought by economic uncertainty and questionable leadership. Adelaide's early economy started to get on its feet in with the arrival of livestock from Victoria , New South Wales and Tasmania. Wool production provided an early basis for the South Australian economy. By , wheat farms had been established from Encounter Bay in the south to Clare in the north.
Governor Gawler took over from Hindmarsh in late and, despite being under orders from the Select Committee on South Australia in Britain not to undertake any public works, promptly oversaw construction of a governor's house, the Adelaide Gaol , police barracks, a hospital, a customs house and a wharf at Port Adelaide. Gawler was recalled and replaced by Governor Grey in Grey slashed public expenditure against heavy opposition, although its impact was negligible at this point: The city exported meat, wool, wine, fruit and wheat by the time Grey left in , contrasting with a low point in when one-third of Adelaide houses were abandoned.
Trade links with the rest of the Australian states were established with the Murray River being successfully navigated in by Francis Cadell , an Adelaide resident. South Australia became a self-governing colony in with the ratification of a new constitution by the British parliament. Secret ballots were introduced, and a bicameral parliament was elected on 9 March , by which time , people lived in the province. In the Thorndon Park reservoir was opened, finally providing an alternative water source to the now turbid River Torrens.
Gas street lighting was implemented in , the University of Adelaide was founded in , the South Australian Art Gallery opened in and the Happy Valley Reservoir opened in In the s Australia was affected by a severe economic depression, ending a hectic era of land booms and tumultuous expansionism. Financial institutions in Melbourne and banks in Sydney closed. The national fertility rate fell and immigration was reduced to a trickle. The value of South Australia's exports nearly halved.
Drought and poor harvests from compounded the problems, with some families leaving for Western Australia. Only one year of deficit was recorded, but the price paid was retrenchments and lean public spending.
Wine and copper were the only industries not to suffer a downturn. Electric street lighting was introduced in and electric trams were transporting passengers in Crowley examined the reports of visitors in the early 20th century, noting that "many visitors to Adelaide admired the foresighted planning of its founders", as well as pondering on the riches of the young city.
Its population grew, and it became the 3rd most populous metropolitan area in the country—after Sydney and Melbourne. Its prosperity was short lived, with the return of droughts, having endured the Great Depression of the s, and later returning to fortune under strong government leadership. World War II brought industrial stimulus and diversification to Adelaide under the Playford Government, which advocated Adelaide as a safe place for manufacturing due to its less vulnerable location.
The South Australian Government in this period built on former wartime manufacturing industries. International manufacturers like General Motors Holden and Chrysler  made use of these factories around Adelaide, completing its transformation from an agricultural service centre to a 20th-century city. The Dunstan Governments of the s saw something of an Adelaide 'cultural revival', [ citation needed ] establishing a wide array of social reforms and overseeing the city becoming a centre of the arts, building upon the biennial " Adelaide Festival of Arts " which commenced in Adelaide hosted the Formula One Australian Grand Prix between and on a street circuit in the city's east parklands; it then moved to Melbourne in Adelaide's tallest building, built in , was originally known as the State Bank Building.
In it was renamed the Santos Building and in it was again renamed Westpac House. Its second tallest building, the Grenfell Centre a. In the early years of the 21st century there was a significant increase in the State Government's spending on Adelaide's infrastructure. Following a period of stagnancy in the s and s, Adelaide began several major developments and redevelopments. Much of Adelaide was bushland before British settlement, with some variation — sandhills, swamps and marshlands were prevalent around the coast.
The loss of the sandhills to urban development had a particularly destructive effect on the coastline due to erosion. Much of the original vegetation has been cleared with what is left to be found in reserves such as the Cleland Conservation Park and Belair National Park.
A number of creeks and rivers flow through the Adelaide region. The largest are the Torrens and Onkaparinga catchments.
Adelaide and its surrounding area is one of the most seismically active regions in Australia. On 1 March at 3: Adelaide is a planned city, designed by the first surveyor-general of South Australia, Colonel William Light. His plan, now known as Light's Vision , arranged Adelaide in a grid, with five squares in the Adelaide city centre and a ring of parks, known as the Adelaide Parklands , surrounding it.
Light's selection of the location for the city was initially unpopular with the early settlers, as well as South Australia's first governor, John Hindmarsh, due to its distance from the harbour at Port Adelaide, and the lack of fresh water there. The benefits of Light's design are numerous: Adelaide has had wide multi-lane roads from its beginning, an easily navigable cardinal direction grid layout and an expansive green ring around the city centre. There are two sets of ring roads in Adelaide that have resulted from the original design.
Suburban expansion has to some extent outgrown Light's original plan. Numerous former outlying villages and "country towns", as well as the satellite city of Elizabeth , have been enveloped by its suburban sprawl.
Expanding developments in the Adelaide Hills region led to the construction of the South Eastern Freeway to cope with growth, which has subsequently led to new developments and further improvements to that transport corridor. Similarly, the booming development in Adelaide's South led to the construction of the Southern Expressway. New roads are not the only transport infrastructure developed to cope with the urban growth.
In the s, a Metropolitan Adelaide Transport Study Plan was proposed in order to cater for the future growth of the city.
The plan involved the construction of freeways, expressways and the upgrade of certain aspects of the public transport system. The then premier Steele Hall approved many parts of the plan and the government went as far as purchasing land for the project.
The later Labor government elected under Don Dunstan shelved the plan, but allowed the purchased land to remain vacant, should the future need for freeways arise.
In , the Liberal party won government and premier David Tonkin committed his government to selling off the land acquired for the MATS plan, ensuring that even when needs changed, the construction of most MATS-proposed freeways would be impractical.
Some parts of this land have been used for transport, e. A relative lack of suitable locally available timber for construction purposes led to the early development of a brick-making industry, as well as the use of stone, for houses and other buildings. After both of the World Wars, the use of red bricks was popular.
In the s, cream bricks became popular, and in the s, deep red and brown bricks became popular. Since then, cement tiles and colourbond corrugated and other types of iron have also become popular. Most roofs are pitched; flat roofs are not common. Up to the s, the majority of houses were of "double brick" construction on concrete footings, with timber floors laid on joists supported by "dwarf walls". Due to Adelaide's reactive soils particularly Keswick Clay, black earth and some red-brown earth soils  , since then houses have mainly been constructed of " brick veneer " over a timber frame and more recently, over a light steel frame on a concrete slab foundation.
Rainfall is unreliable, light and infrequent throughout summer. Frosts are occasional, with the most notable occurrences in July and July Hail is also common in winter. Adelaide is a windy city—it experiences wind chill in winter, which makes the temperature seem colder than it actually is.
Snowfall in the metropolitan area is extremely uncommon, although light and sporadic falls in the nearby hills and at Mount Lofty occur during winter. The average sea temperature ranges from As Adelaide is South Australia's capital and most populous city, the State Government co-operates extensively with the City of Adelaide.
In , the Ministry for the City of Adelaide was created to facilitate the state government's collaboration with the Adelaide City Council and the Lord Mayor to improve Adelaide's image. The state parliament's Capital City Committee  is also involved in the governance of the City of Adelaide, being primarily concerned with the planning of Adelaide's urban development and growth. The Adelaide metropolitan area is divided between nineteen local government areas , including, at its centre, the City of Adelaide , which administers the Adelaide city centre , North Adelaide , and the surrounding Adelaide Parklands.
It is the oldest municipal authority in Australia and was established in , when Adelaide and Australia's first mayor, James Hurtle Fisher , was elected. Compared with the four other major state capitals in Australia, Adelaide is growing at a much slower rate. In , Adelaide had a metropolitan population of more than 1,,  making it Australia's fifth largest city.
Major areas of population growth in recent years have been in outer suburbs such as Mawson Lakes and Golden Grove. Adelaide's inhabitants occupy , houses, 57, semi-detached, row terrace or town houses and 49, flats, units or apartments.
About one sixth The number of Adelaideans with vocational qualifications such as tradespersons fell from Overseas-born Adelaideans composed