- Мне даже не сказали, что вы придете.
Через пять секунд она вновь закроется, совершив вокруг своей оси поворот на триста шестьдесят градусов. - Клаус Шмидт, - выпалил Беккер имя из старого учебника немецкого.
This is part of a Pew Research Center series of reports exploring the behaviors, values and opinions of the teens and twenty-somethings that make up the Millennial Generation. Generations, like people, have personalities, and Millennials — the American teens and twenty-somethings who are making the passage into adulthood at the start of a new millennium — have begun to forge theirs: They are more ethnically and racially diverse than older adults.
Their entry into careers and first jobs has been badly set back by the Great Recession, but they are more upbeat than their elders about their own economic futures as well as about the overall state of the nation. See chapter 4 in the full report. They embrace multiple modes of self-expression. Three-quarters have created a profile on a social networking site.
One-in-five have posted a video of themselves online. Nearly four-in-ten have a tattoo and for most who do, one is not enough: But their look-at-me tendencies are not without limits. Most Millennials have placed privacy boundaries on their social media profiles. See chapters 4 and 7 in the full report.
Despite struggling and often failing to find jobs in the teeth of a recession, about nine-in-ten either say that they currently have enough money or that they will eventually meet their long-term financial goals. Research shows that young people who graduate from college in a bad economy typically suffer long-term consequences — with effects on their careers and earnings that linger as long as 15 years. Whether as a by-product of protective parents, the age of terrorism or a media culture that focuses on dangers, they cast a wary eye on human nature.
Yet they are less skeptical than their elders of government. More so than other generations, they believe government should do more to solve problems. See chapter 8 in the full report.
They are the least overtly religious American generation in modern times. One-in-four are unaffiliated with any religion, far more than the share of older adults when they were ages 18 to Yet not belonging does not necessarily mean not believing. Millennials pray about as often as their elders did in their own youth.
See chapter 9 in the full report. Only about six-in-ten were raised by both parents — a smaller share than was the case with older generations. In weighing their own life priorities, Millennials like older adults place parenthood and marriage far above career and financial success.
We estimate that, in , more than a third of 18 to 29 year old women who gave birth were unmarried. This is a far higher share than was the case in earlier generations. Among 18 to 24 year olds a record share — See chapter 5 in the full report.
They get along well with their parents. Looking back at their teenage years, Millennials report having had fewer spats with mom or dad than older adults say they had with their own parents when they were growing up. And now, hard times have kept a significant share of adult Millennials and their parents under the same roof.
See chapters 3 and 5 in the full report. They respect their elders. A majority say that the older generation is superior to the younger generation when it comes to moral values and work ethic. Also, more than six-in-ten say that families have a responsibility to have an elderly parent come live with them if that parent wants to.
By contrast, fewer than four-in-ten adults ages 60 and older agree that this is a family responsibility. See chapter 2 in the full report. This was the largest disparity between younger and older voters recorded in four decades of modern election day exit polling. Moreover, after decades of low voter participation by the young, the turnout gap in between voters under and over the age of 30 was the smallest it had been since to year-olds were given the right to vote in But the political enthusiasms of Millennials have since cooled -for Obama and his message of change, for the Democratic Party and, quite possibly, for politics itself.
About half of Millennials say the president has failed to change the way Washington works, which had been the central promise of his candidacy.
Of those who say this, three-in-ten blame Obama himself, while more than half blame his political opponents and special interests. To be sure, Millennials remain the most likely of any generation to self-identify as liberals; they are less supportive than their elders of an assertive national security policy and more supportive of a progressive domestic social agenda. They are still more likely than any other age group to identify as Democrats. Yet by early , their support for Obama and the Democrats had reced ed, as evidenced both by survey data and by their low level of participation in recent off-year and special elections.
This Pew Research Center report profiles the roughly 50 million Millennials who currently span the ages of 18 to But for the purposes of this report, unless we indicate otherwise, we focus on Millennials who are at least 18 years old. We examine their demographics; their political and social values; their lifestyles and life priorities; their digital technology and social media habits; and their economic and educational aspirations.
Whenever the trend data permit, we compare the four generations as they all are now-and also as older generations were at the ages that adult Millennials are now. The report also draws on more than two decades of Pew Research Center surveys, supplemented by our analysis of Census Bureau data and other relevant studies.
Generational names are the handiwork of popular culture. Some are drawn from a historic event; others from rapid social or demographic change; others from a big turn in the calendar. The Millennial generation falls into the third category.
The label refers those born after — the first generation to come of age in the new millennium. Generation X covers people born from through The label long ago overtook the first name affixed to this generation: Xers are often depicted as savvy, entrepreneurial loners. The Baby Boomer label is drawn from the great spike in fertility that began in , right after the end of World War II, and ended almost as abruptly in , around the time the birth control pill went on the market.
The Silent generation describes adults born from through It also makes for a nice contrast with the noisy ways of the anti-establishment Boomers.
Generational names are works in progress. The zeitgeist changes, and labels that once seemed spot- on fall out of fashion. A few notes of caution are in order. Generational analysis has a long and distinguished place in social science, and we cast our lot with those scholars who believe it is not only possible, but often highly illuminating, to search for the unique and distinctive characteristics of any given age group of Americans.
But we also know this is not an exact science. We acknowledge, for example, that there is an element of false precision in setting hard chronological boundaries between the generations. Can we say with certainty that a typical year-old adult is a Gen Xer while a typical year-old adult is a Millennial? Nevertheless, we must draw lines in order to carry out the statistical analyses that form the core of our research methodology.
And our boundaries-while admittedly too crisp-are not arbitrary. They are based on our own research findings and those of other scholars. We are mindful that there are as many differences in attitudes, values, behaviors and lifestyles within a generation as there are between generations.
But we believe this reality does not diminish the value of generational analysis; it merely adds to its richness and complexity. Throughout this report, we will not only explore how Millennials differ from other generations, we will also look at how they differ among themselves.
Roughly two-thirds of Silents, nearly six-in-ten Boomers and about half of Xers feel the same way about their generation. But Millennials have a distinctive reason for feeling distinctive.
See chapter 3 in the full report. There are big generation gaps, as well, in using wireless technology, playing video games and posting self-created videos online. Millennials are also more likely than older adults to say technology makes life easier and brings family and friends closer together though the generation gaps on these questions are relatively narrow. A nationwide Pew Research Center survey taken in may help explain why.
This one focused on differences between young and old rather than between specific age groups. Nonetheless, its findings are instructive. Nearly six-in-ten respondents cited work ethic as one of the big sources of differences between young and old. Asked who has the better work ethic, about three-fourths of respondents said that older people do. By similar margins, survey respondents also found older adults have the upper hand when it comes to moral values and their respect for others.
In short, Millennials may be a self-confident generation, but they display little appetite for claims of moral superiority. That survey also found that the public — young and old alike — thinks the younger generation is more racially tolerant than their elders. More than two decades of Pew Research surveys confirm that assessment. In their views about interracial dating, for example, Millennials are the most open to change of any generation, followed closely by Gen Xers, then Boomers, then Silents.
Likewise, Millennials are more receptive to immigrants than are their elders. The same pattern holds on a range of attitudes about nontraditional family arrangements, from mothers of young children working outside the home, to adults living together without being married, to more people of different races marrying each other.
Millennials are more accepting than older generations of these more modern family arrangements, followed closely by Gen Xers. To be sure, acceptance does not in all cases translate into outright approval. But it does mean Millennials disapprove less. See chapter 6 in the full report. But as the results also make clear, this modern generation gap is a much more benign affair than the one that cast a shadow over the s.
The public says this one is mostly about the different ways that old and young use technology — and relatively few people see that gap as a source of conflict. Indeed, only about a quarter of the respondents in the survey said they see big conflicts between young and old in America. Many more see conflicts between immigrants and the native born, between rich and poor, and between black and whites.